Arameans

Evidences of our Aramean origin

"And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of 'Arara."

(The book of Jubilees)


The Arameans are the indigenous people of Syria and Mesopotamia, which the Hebrews called Aram-Naharaim (Aram of the two Rivers). They established several important kingdoms, spread the knowledge of the alphabet, and generally exercised a great influence on the advance of civilization. Their language spread to the neighboring peoples. It survived the fall of Niniveh (612 B.C.) and Babylon (539 B.C.) and remained the official language of the Persian empire (538-331 B.C.). There is evidence to show that Aramaic was widely used in Palestine in Roman times. Hence, Jesus and his direct followers spoke Aramaic, and words in that language have been preserved in the New Testament in transliteration as well as translation.

Since the end of the Aramean kingdom of Osrhoene, the peaceful-minded Arameans have been without any state of their own. They have been constantly victimized for different religious massacres, discrimination, ethnic cleansing and persecutions for hundreds of years, so that they became a minority in the area, which was called by themselves Aram, Aram-Nahrin and Beth Aramaye.

After converting to christianity the East and West-Arameans adopted the term "Syrian" (in Greek "Syrioi", in Aramaic "Suryoyo"/"Sur(y)aya"), which became both a lingual and a group designation [to avoid a confusion with the residents of today's Syria i will use here the term "Syriacs"]. But they continued to call themselves Arameans and used this Greek term as a synonym for their original name.
Despites their common language, culture and history the Arameans of today are divided into various groups (Syriacs, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Maronites, Melkites, Mandeans). Some of the Arameans insist on calling themselves "Assyrians"; other prefer the term "Chaldean".
There are no descendants of the historical ancient Assyrians and the Chaldeans of Antiquity were just a group of Arameans. There is no reason for the present-day Arameans to name their nation "Assyrian" or "Chaldean"- the names given to them by unknown western missionaries in the 16th and 19th century. The only historically correct name for these groups is Aramean, as it is testified by many historians and the great scholars of the Arameans, who enlightened the entire Mankind.

The Historians

Poseidonios from Apamea (ca. 135 BC - 51 BC), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian, and teacher.

"The people we Greek call Syriacs, they call themselves Arameans".

(See J.G. Kidd, Posidonius (Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries, 1988), vol. 2, pt. 2, pp . 955-956)

 

Strabo (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher is mostly famous for his

 Geographika ("Geography")

"Poseidonius conjectures that the names of these nations also are akin; for, says he, the people whom we call Syriacs are by the Syriacs themselves called Arameans."

(The Geography of Strabo, translated by Horace Leonard Jones and published in Vol. I of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1917, Book I, Chapt. 2, 34)

 

Flavius Josephus (c. 37 – c. 100 AD (or CE)) was a 1st century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and royal ancestry who survived and recorded the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 and later settled in Rome.

"Aram had the Arameans, which the Greeks called Syriacs."

(Antiquities of the Jews, translated by William Whiston in 1737, Book I, Chapt. 6)

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275 – May 30, 339), was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of

 church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church.

"and from Aram the Arameans, which are also called Syriacs"

(Sebastian Brock, "Eusebius and Syriac Christianity," in Harold W. Attridge and Gohei Hata, eds., Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism (Leiden 1992), p. 226)

 

Abu Al-husayn 'ali Ibn Al-husayn Al-mas'udi, born 895 in Baghdad [Iraq] and died 957 in al-Fustat [Egypt], was a historian and traveler, known as the “Herodotus of the Arabs.” He was the first Arab to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work.
"Tur Abdin is the mountain where remnants of the Aramean Syriacs still survive."

(Michael Jan de Goeje: Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum III, Leiden 1906, 54, I)

Prof. Dietrich Hermann Hegewisch born Dec. 15, 1746 in Quakenbrück [Germany] and died April 4, 1812 in Kiel, was a

 prolific german historian at the University of Kiel with a wide span of interests.

"Do not the Syriacs, as they are usually called, or the Arameans, as they in fact are termed, deserve more attention in world history than they are usually given?"

(D.H. Hegewisch: Die Aramäer oder Syrer; ein kleiner Beitrag zur allgemeinen Weltgeschichte, Berlinische Monatschrift, 2, 1794, p. 193)

"The names Syria, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylon, etc. stem from the Greeks, who were not familiar with the true geography of these lands when the names first started to be used. Later, partly because of continuing ignorance and partly because of convenience despite having accurate knowledge, they persisted in using them since it would have required something of an effort to give up the old, familiar names and divisions of the countries and switch to the new ones, even if they were more accurate. The old, true, and single name of these lands is Aram; it is mentioned numerous times in the Bible of the Old Testament, and Greek scholars were also familiar with it and probably described the population of these areas as Arameans, though seldom, as they usually continued to use the term Syriac, which had been familiar to the Greeks."

(ibid, p. 197)

"The Syriacs or Arameans were not merely a numerous and large people, they were also a much cultivated people."

(ibid, p. 307)

Prof. Theodor Mommsen born Nov. 30, 1817, Garding, Schleswig [now in Germany] died Nov. 1, 1903, Charlottenburg, near Berlin, was a German historian and writer, famous for his masterpiece about the History of Rome. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902.

"the history of the Aramaean or Syriac nation which occupied the east coast and extended into the interior of Asia as far as the Euphrates and Tigris"

(The History of Rome, written between 1854 and 1856, Leipzig, by Theodor Mommsen, Book First, Chapter One)

"the Arameans defended their nationality with the weapons of intellect as well as with their blood against all the allurements of Greek civilization and all the coercive measures of eastern and western despots, and that with an obstinacy which no Indo- Germanic people has ever equalled, and which to us who are Occidentals seems to be sometimes more, sometimes less, than human."

(ibid, Book Third, Chapter One)

Prof. Theodor Nöldeke born March 2, 1836 in Harburg near Hamburg, died December 25, 1930 in Karlsruhe, was the leading german semitic scholar, who studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin.

"The main body of the population of all these wide landscapes from the Mediterranean Sea to beyond the Tigris belonged to a certain nationality, that of the Arameans."

(Th. Nöldeke: Assyrios Syrios Syros, in Zeitschrift für klassische Philologie, Hermes 5, Berlin 1871, p. 460)

"It is well understandable that people have started to transfer the name of the country to the most important nationality and so the name 'syriac' was apprehended ethnological and was equated with 'aramaic'."

(ibid, p. 461)

"Since the times of Alexander [the Great], if not already somewhat earlier, people have started to transfer the name of the Syriacs exclusively over the prevailing in Syria nationality, and in this way this originally political-geographical term became an ethnological one that was identified with the local Arameans."

(ibid, p. 468)

“From the time the Greeks came to have a more intimate acquaintance with Asia, they designated by the name of ‘Syriacs’ the people who called themselves ‘Arameans’.”

(Th. Nöldeke, Kurzgefasste Syrische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1880), p. XXIX)

“Regarding the name of this nation and its language is the original ‘Aramean’ in essence also the only one [sic], that for the employment of the present-day scholarship as yet strongly fits.”

(Th. Nöldeke, “Die Namen der aramäischen Nation und Sprache,” in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 25 (1871), p. 131)

Karl Eduard Sachau born 20 July 1845 and died 1930 was a German orientalist. He was 1872 professor at the University of Vienna, and in 1876, professor at the University of Berlin, where he was appointed director of the new Seminar of Oriental languages in 1887. He is especially noteworthy for his work on Syriac and other Aramaic dialects.

"The nation of the Arameans: This national name later, mainly in consequence of Jewish-Christian literature influences, gave way to the Greek designation Syriacs."

(Verzeichnis der Syrischen Handschriften der königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin von Eduard Sachau 1. Abteilung, Berlin 1899, Vorrede I)

 

 

The Aramean Scholars

Aramaic Heritage of the Syriac Orthodox Church

Ephraem of Nisibis, born c. 306 in Nisibis, Mesopotamia [now Nusaybin, Turkey] passed away June 9, 373, Urhoy/Edessa, Osrhoene [now Sanliurfa, Turkey] was a theologian, poet, hymnist, and doctor of the church, with his byname "Harp of the Holy Spirit".

He speaks of Aram-Nahrin as `our country' in a number of places.


(See Sidney H. Griffith, "Julian Saba, `Father of the Monks' of Syria," Journal of Early Christian Studies 2 (1994), esp. pp. 201-203)

The Nisibene Hymns:
"From Hebrews and Arameans, and also from the Watchers: to You be praise and through You to Your Father, be also glory!"

(The Nisibene Hymns, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series II, Vol. XIII, translated by Rev. J.T. Sarsfield Stopford, B.A., Hymn 67., no.20.)

Hymn for virgins:

"The Arameans praised him with their branches."

(Edmund Beck, ed., Des Heiligen Ephraem des Syrers Hymnen de Virginitate, Louvain, 1962, CSCO Syr 223, p. 64)

Discourse to Hypatius IV:

"They have combined and made from the word 'man,' 2 as it is written in the Aramaic (the explanation) that this (word) refers to a (single) man, that is the Primal Man, the Father of the Five Shining Ones whom they call ZIWANE (the Bright Ones)."

(S. Ephraim's Prose Refutations of Mani, Marcion and Bardaisan. Transcribed from the Palimpsest B.M. Add. 14623 by C. W. MITCHELL, M.A., volume 1 (1912), p. 122)
[note: Mitchell rendered "Aramaic" as "Syriac" here, see thereforre the original syriac text, where it is "Aramaic"]

Against Bardaisan's "Domnus":

"But the Philosopher of the Arameans (i.e. Bardaisan) made himself a laughing-stock among Arameans and Greeks"

(S.Ephraim's Prose Refutations of Mani, Marcion and Bardaisan. Transcribed from the Palimpsest B.M. Add. 14623 by the late C. W. MITCHELL, M.A., C.F., volume 2 (1921) pp.7)
[note: the translator rendered twice "Arameans" as "Syriacs" here, see therefore the syriac text]

"For because 'light' in the Aramaic language is called as masculine, and 'eye' feminine in the same"
"he, Bardaisan, calls the moon feminine in the Aramaic language"

(ibid, p. 49)

Against Mani:

"and there ended the construction of the Aramaean Philosopher"

(ibid, p. 225)

The Teaching of Addai, usually dated c.AD 400, discusses the christianization of Mesopotamia, beginning with the kingdom of Osrhoene, the capital of which was Urhoy/Edessa.
"[...] in the reign of king Abgar, son of king Ma'nu, in the month of October, on the twelfth day, Abgar Ukkama sent Marihab and Shamshagram, chiefs and honoured persons of his kingdom, and Hannan the tabularius, the sharrir, with them, to the city which is called Eleutheropolis, but in Aramaic Beth-gubrin[..."

(The doctrine of Addai, the Apostle, translated by George Phillips, London 1876, p. 2)

The Acts of Mar Mari the Apostle, a late sixth-century composition, is a record of the mission of Mari, a disciple of Addai, to Persia.
"Now the cities and territories of Babylonia and Persia were full of small kings, but the Parthians were ruling the territory of Babylonia. At that time, the Parthian Aphrahat son of Aphrahat was reigning in Babylonia - in Seleucia and Ctesiphon in Beth-Aramaye."

( The Acts of Mar Mari the Apostle, Translated by Amir Harrak. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2005, p. 38)

"After the blessed Mar Mari had returned from the territories of the Syriacs, he came down to Beth-Aramaye, beginning with the region of Radan."

(ibid, p. 41; compare with the syriac version on p. 40)

"After many years of going around Beth-Aramaye, where he brought to the Christian faith many among the Jews and the pagans..."

(ibid, p. 67)

"The blessed Mar Mari previously went to Kashkar, when he first arrived in Beth-Aramaye and realized that Seleucia would not open its door so that he could teach its inhabitants a lesson in the fear of God."

(ibid, p. 69)

"The conversion of Kashkar preceded the conversion of Seleucia and Beth-Aramaye, because tradition holds that the bish- opric see of this place was older than all the other sees."

(ibid, p. 71)

"As for the blessed apostle, he returned with his companions and went up to Beth-Aramaye, Seleucia, and Ctesiphon."

(ibid, p. 75)

The Book of the Cave of Treasures (sometimes attributed to Ephraem the Syriac) is a sixth century Christian sacred history written by a an anonymous Aramean from Urhoy or Nisibin.
"and from Adam until the present time they were all of one speech and one language. They all spake this language, that is to say Syriac, which is Aramaic, and this language is the king of all languages. Now, ancient writers have erred in that they said that Hebrew was the first [language], and in this matter they have mingled an ignorant mistake in their writing. For all the languages that are in the world are derived from Syriac, and all the languages in books are mingled with it."

(The Book of the Cave of Treasures, translated from the Syriac by E. A. Wallis Budge in London 1927, p. 132)

Joshua the Stylite, author of a chronicle composed in AD 507, was a man from Urhoy/Edessa of good education and eyewitness of many of the events which he describes in his history of the time of affliction at Edessa and Amida and throughout all Mesopotamia.
"The year 815 (A.D. 503-4). When the Roman emperor learned what had happened, he sent his magister Celer with a large army. When Kawad heard this, he directed his marches along the river Euphrates that he might go and stay in that province of his which is called Beth Armaye."

(The Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite, translated by William Wright, Cambridge 1882, p. 54-55)

Saint James of Sarug born 451, Curtam [now Qurtman, Syria] passed away November 521, Batnan, Osrhoene [now in Turkey], was described for his learning and holiness as “the flute of the Holy Spirit and the harp of the believing church”.

He praises Ephraem in a Hymn as the adornment of the Arameans, as opposed to the Greek culture by saying:

"He who gazed diligently in his mind on the great Moses, and after the model of the Hebrew women he taught the Aramaean women to give praise with their madrashe;"

(Ed. Joseph Amar, A Metrical Homily on Holy Mar Ephrem by Mar Jacob of Serugh, Patrologia Orientalis 47,1, p. 46)

"He who became a crown for the entire Arameandom, (and) by him we have been brought close to spiritual beauty;"

(ibid, p. 155)

In his Homily on Aday, the Apostle and King Abgar of Edessa:

"This one opened the big gate of baptism in Edessa, the city full of blessings for the prudent ones.
This one brought the glorious garments from the house of the Father and bathed and embellished the daughter of the Arameans when she was taken [as wife]."

(Syriac Manuscripts from the Vatican Library: Volume 1, VatSyr. 117 number 108. On Addai the Apostle and Abgar the King of Edessa. Fol. 268b)

"[The Patriarch] Jacob and [the apostle] Aday were sent to Aram-Nahrin, so that they would fulfill both the New and Old (Testament words)."
"Aday himself, too, came to the land of Beth Aramaye, so that these symbols drawn by Jacob would be fulfilled through him. And (so) in Urhoy he opened up a big fountain of living waters."

(ibid, Fol.270a)

"The shepherd Addai, who was also sent to Aram, separated all the white [sheep] from the articulate flock that he pastured."

(ibid, Fol. 270b)

In his Homily on Urhoy and Jerusalem:

"The darkness of the world and the blackness of Abgar, the Aramaean's son, the world of darkness became light through Abgar in Christ."

(Words, Texts And Concepts Cruising The Mediterranean Sea: Studies On The Sources, Contents And Influences Of Islamic Civilization And Arabic Philosophy And Science : Dedicated To Gerhard Endress On His Sixty Peter Bruns' Ein Memra des Jakob von Serug Auf Edessa und Jerusalem, p. 546)

about Urhoy:

"The daughter of the Arameans, albeit aloof, heard his lore"

(ibid, p. 549)

In the Homily on "Guria and Shamuna”, he praises these martyrs from the neighborhood of Urhoy by saying:

"Two precious pearls, which were an ornament for the bride of my lord Abgar, the Aramaean's son."

(A Homily on Guria and Shamuna Composed by Mar Jacob, Text tr. A. Roberts and J. Donaldson (eds.), Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 8, 1886)
(See Syriac Manuscripts from the Vatican Library: Volume 1, VatSyr. 117, number 224:On Shmona and Gurya. Fol. 551a, p. 1099)

About the biblical Patriarch Abraham:

"The fate of the sacrifices received Abraham the Aramean."

(Mimro inedit de Jacques de Saroug sur le Sacerdoce et l`autel par Micheline Albert, in: Parole de L´Orient X (98-98), p. 68)

In his homilies against the Jews he writes:

"There was Abraham, from the house of Nahor, in the country of Aram."

(Micheline ALBERT, Jacques de Saroug Homélies contre les Juifs Edition Critique du Texte Syriaque inédit traduction française, introduction et notes Turnhout Brepols 1976 in Patrologia Orientalis Tome XXXVIII- Fasicule 1 - n° 174, p. 76)

about Rebecca, the daughter of Bethuel:

"Rebecca fled to Jacob into the country of Aram."

(ibid, p. 133)

In the Homily on Tamar:

"Leah and Rachel, straightforward women of integrity, were contending over Him in the land of Aram."

(See, for example, S.P. Brock, “Jacob of Serugh’s Verse Homily on Tamar (Gen. 38),” in Le Muséon 115:3-4 (2002), line 76 (text, p. 282 & transl., p. 295)

In the Homily on Samson:

"Isaac received Thee and raised up a likeness of Thee on Gologtha, And Jacob stole Thine image and fled to the land of Aram."

(A Homily on Samson By Mar Jacob, Bishop of Serugh (+ A.D. 521), translated from the Syriac by the Holy Transfiguration Monastery)

Philoxenos of Mabugh was born around AD 430 in the village of Tahal in the region of Beth Garmai in Persia. Afterward, his parents moved the family away due to persecution from the pagans and the family then settled in Tur Abdin where Philoxenus became a monk of great learning and reputation. He studied together with Saint James of Sarug in Urhoy and in the Monastery of Mor Gabriel in Tur Abdin. He was martyred in AD 523 in Philippopolis in Thrakia and was one of the greatest church fathers.

In his hymn against Habib he says:

"This term mixture or fusion is found in all the writings of our Fathers, both in the Aramaic and in the Greek (writings)"

(M. Brière et F. Graffin, Sancti Philoxeni Episcopi Mabbugensis Dissertationes decem de une a sancta trinitate in corporato et passo (Memre contre Habib) III Dissertationes 6a 7a 8a in Patrologia Orientalis Tome XXXIX Fasicule 4 n°181, p. 694)

John Rufus, priest at Antioch and disciple of the great anti-Chalcedonian leader, Peter the Iberian (417-491), writes about the Life of St. Abhai, bishop of Nicea:
"They were instructed in both of the writings: in this Aramaic writing that is named Syriac and also in the Greek writing that is called Roman."
"For at that time those who were instructed in wisdom were learning this Aramaic writing, namely Syriac, because it was the language of those who dwell in Mesopotamia from the beginning. After the Flood that was in the days of Noah the Arameans dwelled in Mesopotamia."
"Many of the sons of Aram were instructed in the Greek writing."

(Syriac Manuscripts from the Vatican Library; Volume 1, VatSyr 37: Life of St. Abhai, Bishop of Nicea. Fol. 157a-157b)

His Holiness Patriarch Michael the Great revised this life story of Saint Abhai in 1185.

The historian and Bishop Simeon of Beth Arsham, which was located near Seleucia-Ctesiphon, was a famous man who made disciples and baptised three great and famous men among the Magians. He passed away in Constantinople, probably about 532-533.

He says in a letter concerning Barsauma and the heresies of the Nestorians about Acac, Catholicos of the Church of the East from 485-495/6 AD :

"Acac the Aramean, who was called 'the suffocator/oppressor of farthings' at the very school (of Urhoy)"

(Syriac Manuscripts from the Vatican Library; Volume 1, VatSyr 135, number 6: A letter by Bishop Simeon of Beth Arsham concerning Barsauma and the heresies of the Nestorians. Fol. 25b)

about Mar Benjamin:

"Mar Benjamin the Aramean, who later became the abbot of the school in the village of Daira, which (lies) in the diocese of our monasteries."

(ibid)

about those 'Nestorians' who were driven from Roman Urhoy and went to Persia, where they became bishops:

"Acac (in) Beth Aramaye and Bar-Sawmo the abominable in Nisibin."

(ibid, Fol.26a)

about the Catholicos Babai he writes:

"In the days of Babai the Catholicos, this Mari emerged (as) the teacher of the heresies of the followers of Paul of Samosata and Diodorus [of Tarsus] in Beth Aramaye. And Babai the Catholicos, the son of Hormizd who was the secretary of Zabercan the Marzban of Beth Aramaye, received the doctrine from him. Anyone who does not confess that Mary is Theotokos, let him be anathema!"

(ibid, Fol.27a)

His Holiness Patriarch Severus of Antioch, known as "Crown of the Syriacs" was born c. 465, , in Sozopolis in the province of Pisidia [Bulgaria] and passed away 538 in Xois [Egypt].

He writes a letter to Maron of which the beginning is:

"When Naaman the Syriac..."

Naaman was the highest ranking general of the kingdom of Aram.

(A collection of letters of Severus of Antioch from numerous Syriac Manuscripts, edited and translated by E. W. Books, 1915, VI.)

in one of his writings he says:

"It is in this way we the Arameans, that is to say Syriacs [...]"

(Maurice Brière, Les Homiliae Cathedrales de Sévère d'Antioche Traduction Syriaque de Jacques d'Edesse (Suite) Homelies CXX A CXXV in F. Graffin, Patrologia Orientalis Tome XXIX-Fasicule 1, p. 196)

Saint Jacob of Urhoy/Edessa († 708), one of the most prolific writers of syriac literature, born at the village of Ayndaba in the district of Gumyah, in the province of Antioch about 633.

He says in his book "The Six Days":

"It appears that the south was so named also by us Arameans. But as for the north, it is not known to us why it was called (such) by the ancient sons of Aram."

(Schtoth Yaume: Hexaemeron, Die Schöpfungslehre des Jakob von Edessa (+708). Nach der Estrangelo Handschrift, die 839 n. Chr. geschrieben wurde; abgeschrieben von Erzbischof J.J. Cicek, Verlag Bar Hebräus, Losser-Holland 1985, p. 60)

"The bees cast the fructifying seed of their nature into it; thus it is according to the manner of speaking in our Aramaic tongue."

(ibid, p. 171)

"But in the manner of speaking (of) the Arameans, (some) people call them chirping gadflies."

(ibid, p. 175)

"This name of the word "Soul" which we are using among the words of our tongue of the land of the Two Rivers that is to say the Aramaic, we borrowed it from the noble and old language, that one of the Hebrew.

(ibid, p. 244)

In one of his letters he writes:

"also beacuse, I tell you truly, the Hebrew language is the first speech, and not Syriac or Aramaic, which many people - even among those who are important and famous - have erroneously supposed to be the first, whereas I say that it is that of the Hebrews, and not that of the Arameans. "

(W. Wright, "Two Epistles of Mar Jacob, Bishop of Edessa." in Journal of Sacred Literature and Biblical Record NS 10, 1867, 430-460 [ms. Brit. Libr., Add. 12172])

The Syriac Chronicle of Zuqnin near Amid [today Diyarbakir in Turkey] features accounts of the world from its creation to the eighth century A.D. The Anonymous writer says regarding the year 504-505:
"The year eight hundred and sixteen: The Romans devastated all the Persian territory from Nisibis to the boundaries of Beth Aramaye, killing, destroying, taking prisoner and plundering."

(The Chronicle of Zuqnin, Parts III and IV, english translation by Amir Harrak, Toronto 1999, p. 41)

after the Arab conquest in 640 he says about the caliph Abd al-Malik, who reigned till 705:

"He published a severe edict ordering each man to go to his own country, to his village of origin, to inscribe there in a register his name, that of his father, his vineyards, olive trees, goods, children and all that he possessed. Such was the origin of the tribute of capitation and of all the evils that spread over the Christians. Until then the kings took tribute from land but not from men. Since then the children of Hagar began to impose Egyptian servitude on the sons of Aram."

(ibid, p. 148)

About the imposator appeared in the West and seduced and killed many among the Jews:

"He went down to the land of Beth Aramaye that was immersed in all the evils of sorcery, and devoted himself to sorcery and all diabolical tricks."

(ibid, p. 163)

In relation to Jazira, the term which refers to Upper Mesopotamia from Osrhoene in the West to Mount Sinjar in the East, being the land of the Syriac-speaking Christians:

"land which spoke the language of the children of Aram"

(ibid, p. 225)

About the Arab Muslims who married Christian women:

"As for the people who married (Syriac) women, sired Syriac children, and mixed with the Syriacs, and whom no one was able to distinguish from the Arameans, he quickly found out about them."

(ibid, p. 226)

Patriarch Dionysius († 845) of Tellmahre, near ar-Raqqa on the Balikh River, writes in his chronicle:
"We call "Syriacs", in a special way, those living in the land West of the Euphrates River, from the Mount Amanon in the north of Antioch until the boundaries of Palestine, and from the Red Sea until the Euphrates.
And in a figurative way, we call "Syriacs" those who speak this Aramaic language from the West and East side of the Euphrates (that is to say from the Mediterranean Sea until the land of Persia).
We said this, in order to show in a special way, that the "Syriacs" are those living in the West. And the inhabitants of the Island that is to say those living between the land of the Two Rivers are inhabtiants of the land situated on the East side of the Euphrates: and that Urhoy is the country of the Syriac-Aramaic language and its foundation."

(J-B Chabot, Chronique de Michel le Syrien Patriarche Jacobite d'Antioche (1166-1199) Tome I-II-III (French) and Tome IV (Syriac), Paris, 1899, Livre XII Chap XVI, p. 524)

Monk Anton († 850) of Tigrit [Iraq] was a brilliant writer in syriac/aramaic poetry and his writings influenced the Arab poetry.

He says in his book "The knowledge of Eloqeunce" in Chapter 5 on Wafa:

“The fifth meter of poetry is usually composed of six or seven strophics whose number sometimes increases or decreases. This meter belongs to man named wafa, a philosopher of the Arameans.”

(Patriarch Aphrem Barsaum's BERULE BDHIRE, Histoire des Sciences et de la litterature Syriaque, ND Holland 1987, p. 213)

Moses Bar Kepha, a celebrated bishop and writer, born at Balad (near Tigris) in 813 and passed away in 903, says in his book "The Six Days":
”Mor Philoxenus said also that the translation of the Bible called "The Simple-Pashitto" which was translated into our language, the Aramaic, is the work of Agola and Soomkhos. ”

(Patriarch A. Barsaum, The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch: Its Name and History, published by the syriac organizations in Middle Europe and Sweden 1983, p. 17)

Dionysius Jacob Bar Salibi, the great spokesman of the syriac church in the 12th century, a native of Militini [now Malatya, Turkey], passed away Nov. 2, 1171

He says in his book against the Armenians:

"The Armenians say: "From whom do you descend--you who are Syriacs by race?"--Against them we will say: Neither you know from whom you descend. The name "Armenian" is derived from "Armenian" which is the name of a country (and not of a person). It is we (Syriacs) who have enlightened your authors and revealed to them that you are descending from Togarma, who was from the children of Japhet. As to us Syriacs we descend racially from Shem, and our father is Kemuel son of Aram, and from this name of Aram we are also called sometimes in the Books by the name of "Arameans." We are called "Syriacs" after the name of "Syrus," who built Antioch with its banlieue; and the country was called after him, "Syria"."

(A. Mingana, The work of Dionysius Bar Salibi against the Armenians, in Woodbrooke Studies, Vol.4, Cambridge, 1931, p. 54)

Against the Melkites he says in his book "Discussions":

"Neither the Greeks are our fathers nor the Romans, nor are the Jews the fathers of Christians: all these are loose expressions and old women's tales. If Yawan, the father of the Greeks, was born before Aram, our father, there might have been occasion for discussion, but when this is not the case, how did you then glory in the not very weighty words of those haughty and arrogant people." <

(A. Mingana, A Treatise of Bar Salibi Against the Melchites, Cambridge, 1931, p. 57)

"Because of hatred they (the Greeks) call us Jacobites instead of Syriacs and we answer and say that the name Syriac by which you do not call us anymore does not rank before the honorable name because this name is derived from Syrus, who ruled over Antiochia and after him the land was named Syria...however we are the descendants of Aram and from his name we were called in ancient times by the name "Arameans"."<

(Bishop J.E. Manna, Chaldean-Arabic Dictionary, Babel Center Publications. Beirut 1915, p. 11-21)

The great Father of the Church and famous historian Patriarch Michael the Great († 1199) born at Militini in 1126

He enumerates in his world chronicle the children of Shem:

"The Children of Shem are the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, the Ludians and the Arameans who are the Syriacs, the Hebrews and the Persians”

(J-B Chabot, Chronique de Michel le Syrien Patriarche Jacobite d'Antioche (1166-1199) Tome I-II-III (French) and Tome IV (Syriac), Paris, 1899, pg 7 Livre II Chapitre I )

about Aram, the son of Kemuel, and his descendants:

"Among the sons of Nahor, the brother of Abraham, was born Aram, who is [the son of] Kemuel, from whom descend the Arameans of Beth Nahrin [Mesopotamia]"

(ibid, p. 18-19 Livre III Chapitre II )

regarding the wars of king David against Israel's neighbours:

"In the eighteenth year of the reign of [king] David, Hanon took on his charge the kings of Aram and Harran."

(ibid, p. 36 Livre IV Chapitre X)

"The first tongue is Aramaic from which is developed Hebrew."

(ibid, p. 9-10)

about the strike between the turks and francs and the siege of Urhoy during the period of the crusaders:

"These things happened in the year 1414 on the river Baliha, which arises in Paddan-Aram."

(ibid, p. 593 Livre XV Chapitre X)

about Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, he says:

"He (also) sent from among those who were with him [the apostle] Aday so as to preach in Beth Aramaye."

(ibid, p. 117 Livre VI Chapitre IX)

about the war between the caliph Al Mamoun of Baghdad and Mohammed:

"Because stones were not to be found in Baghdad, just as there were not any in Beth Aramaye, they ended up in breaking the columns which they had taken down from the churches, and they were throwing them into the (ballistic) machines."

(ibid, p. 496 Livre XII Chapitre VII)

about Abu Ishak (925-994), who was the chief of the state chancellery of Baghdad:

"Abusak, king of the Arabs [Muslims], left Baghdad and went up to live between the two rivers (i.e. canals) which flow from the Tigris and irrigate the regions of (Beth) Aramaye; they are called the Great Qutlub and the Little Qutlub."

(ibid, p. 530 Livre XII Chapitre XIX)

regarding the Mesopotamian history:

”The kingdoms which have been established in antiquity by our race, (that of) the Arameans, namely the descendants of Aram, who were called Syriacs."

"The Arameans then, whom the Greeks call Syriacs, took hold of Aram."

(ibid, p. 748, appendice II)

regarding the names of the Catholicos of the Nestorians:

"Acac, who protrudes in the school of Urhoy together with Bar-Sawmo and Narsai, who were instructed in the books of Diodorus and Theodorus in this Aramaic writing."

(ibid, p. 775, appendice VI)

The "Chronicle to the year 1234" was written at about the year 1237 A.D. by an anonymous writer probably from Urhoy/Edessa.
"From Adam until the building of the tower the language was Hebrew and others say they spoke the Syriac language, which is Aramaic"

(The Syriac World History. Secular and Ecclesiastical, Verlag Bar Hebräus, Losser-Holland 2004, p. 29)

"in Babylon Nebuchadnezar spoke in the Aramaic language"

(ibid, p. 70)

Mor Sevira Yacob Bartelli († 1241), was the bishop of the convent of Mar Mattay and Azerbaijan. He writes in his book "Questions and Answers":
"Some of them were called Arameans, some Izleans and some others Sofnians."

(Patriarch A. Barsaum, The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch: Its Name and History, published by the syriac organizations in Middle Europe and Sweden 1983, p. 23)

Gregorios Bar Hebraeus born 1226, Militini and passed away July 30, 1286, Maragheh [Iran] is called ‘Ocean of Wisdoms’, ‘Light of the East and West’, 'Prince of Learning Men', ‘The Greatest Sage’, 'The most Learn man possessing Divine Knowledge'...

He says in his "Book of the Rays":

"You have not corrupted me in the barbaric, pagan astrology, but [instead] You have brought me to the eloquent Aramean-Syriac nation."

(Buch der Strahlen die groessere Grammatik des Barhebraeus : Uebersetzung nach einem kritisch berichtigten Texte mit textkritischem Apparat und einem Anhang zur Terminologie. Leipzig : O. Harrassowitz, 1907-1913, preface)

"From Aram, that is Syria, we are saying Aramean [...], that is to say Syriac and from Aram, which is Harran, the city of the pagans, we are saying pagan [...] The East Syriacs do not know the first one and read in the 2nd Book of Kings (18:26) 'speak to your servants in the aramaic language' [...] and it is obvious that the scripture demands here 'syriac' and not 'pagan'. And in Paul's Epistle to the Galatians [2,14] they read 'if you who are a Jew, live like a pagan' [...] and it is obvious that the scripture demands here 'pagan' and not 'syriac'.

(ibid, p. 44)

The book of the laughable stories:

"let this book be a religious friend to the reader, whether he be Muslim, or Hebrew, or Aramean, or a man belonging to a foreign country."

(Bar Hebraeus, tr. E.A. Wallis Budge, The Laughable Stories. Luzac & Co., London 1897, p. 3-4)

In his famous chronography we read:

"The Border of Shem: From Persia and Bhakurtos to India and Rinokura, the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, the Lydians, the Syriacs, the Hebrews, and the Persians."

(The chronography of Gregory Abû'l-Faraj, transl. by Ernest A. Wallis Budge, London 1932. - Amsterdam : Apa-Philo Press, 1976, p. 6)

about the Syriac/Aramaic language:

"And Saint Basil and Mar Aprim have decided that the first language which existed before the division of tongues was Syriac, even as the word 'Bhulbala' itself testifieth. But the pious Jacob and John of Yathreb think that Hebrew was the first language - the Hebrew which was preserved with Eber, for he was a righteous man and did not agree to the building of the Tower."

(ibid, p. 8)

In his book "Storehouse of Secrets":

"That is, that the Syriac was the first tongue, and not the Hebrew as some think, is known from this, that Abraham was first called Hebrew because of the crossing of the river Euphrates"

(M. Sprengling & W.C. Graham, Barhebraeus' Scholia on the Old Testament (Oriental Institute publications 13). Chicago 1931, p. 45)

"The Syriac tongue is from Aram the son of Shem the son of Noah; the name is transmitted in Aramaic."

(R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus syriacus, Oxford 1879-1901, Volume 1, columne 388)

"Aram is Inner Syria, that is Palestine, while outside of Syria is called Aram-Nahrin."

(ibid)

In his syriac grammar books:

"The Arameans don't want to mix with the pagans."

(ibid)

"Wash my tongue with hyssop, so that they speak in the Aramaic language in the measure of Ephraem, because this is the Syriac way of speaking, which foreigners do not use."

(Bar Hebraei Grammatica Syriacae, ed. Ernst Bertheau, Göttingen 1843, p. 2)

"The Aramaic language is the Syriac language of Urhoy."

(Patriarch A. Barsaum, The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch: Its Name and History, published by the syriac organizations in Middle Europe and Sweden 1983, p. 23)

In his book "Summary of Nations":

"The language of all mankind was one, the Syriac, and it was divided into three parts. The clearest was Aramaic."

(Patriarch A. Barsaum, The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch: Its Name and History, published by the syriac organizations in Middle Europe and Sweden 1983, p. 27)

Yeshu` Bar Kilo († 1309) was a priest from the village of Hah in Tur Abdin [Turkey]. He published many letters.

In his 9th letter to a priest he says:

"to the priest who was elected as light to the Aramean people"

(Bar Kilo I, Bar Chacaco II, David Beit-Rabban III, edited by Ishok Bar Armalto, Beirut 1928, p. 22)

In his 13th letter to a deacon:

"in this way in the beauty of wisdom you have overthrown evil and its snare. The whole people of the Arameans sees that he refreshs his thirst."

(ibid, p. 31)

Patriarch Aphrem Barsaum born on June 15, 1887, in Mossul [Iraq] and passed away on June 23, 1957 in Homs [Syria] devoted much of his time to writing and published many works.

He says in his book "History of Tur Abdin":

"His history in our ‘river language’, in other words Syro- Aramaic, which is loved deeply by all its children and shown to the people….”

(Patriarch Aphrem I. Barsaum: History of Tur Abdin, translated by Gregorios Bulus Behnam into arabic, Baghdad 1963. ND Verlag Bar Hebräus, Losser-Holland 1985, p. 9)

"The first inhabitants of Tur Abdin were the Arameans"

(ibid, p. 14)

These two passages were written in his room in Homs (Syria) in the month of June in 1956, the 24th year of his patriarchate:
“... of our teachings and our language, Aramaic...”

(Nurbe, by Theophilos George Saliba. Bar Hebräus Verlag, Losser-Holland 1989, p. 31)

“...on the Aramean heights...” [in the sense of speaking of the pride of Syrian Orthodox and their Aramaen heritage]

(ibid, p. 32)

On the passing of the syriac orthodox father St. Dionysios, the Metrian of Malabar (India), who was named Yawsef and was born on the 28th of June 1909:

“On the Indian heights heroes have fallen;
And in the mountains of the Arameans good people succumbed.
Honorable bishops, chosen and immaculate, astonishing and miraculous;
The knives of the nobility hit them to the bone.”

(ibid, p. 34)

Another poem, published in 1931 in “Khekmtho” (wisdom) in Jerusalem, on the passing of priest Jacob Saka:

“The man who enlightened the East in our century has passed away;
Who gave esteem to the Arameans and let them shine.”
“Jacob Saka was an honourable priest from Bartelli;
He served Syrianism and structured it in perfect passion.
He also lectured the Aramaic dialect for forty years
In Bartelli and in the monastery of Mor Mattay [Mossul]”

(ibid, p. 40)

About Beth Nahrin (Mesopotamia) written in Homs (Syria) on the 20th of May 1943:

"Beth Nahrin of the Arameans, the beloved place of the Syriacs"

(ibid, p. 43)

"Beth Nahrin Beth Abraham, the land of Noah, Shem and Aram"

(ibid, p. 44)

In a syriac hymn, which he composed for the school of Mossul and published in “Sefro Suryoyo” [The Syriac Writing] in Aleppo (Syria) in 1947 :

“The Ephremic school of Aramean education which shaped the heads of our priests with divine aid.”
(ibid, p. 52)

Regarding the Syriac community:

"The Syriac community was known from its beginning as the Aramean community"

(Patriarch A. Barsaum, The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch: Its Name and History, published by the syriac organizations in Middle Europe and Sweden 1983, p. 1)

About the name of the church:

"If someone asks about eliminating the confusion resulting from the English use of the "Syrian" name in the USA because it is translated in French "Syrien" and in English "Syrian" for both country and religion, so that no one could distinguish between the different kinds of the religious rites. And if we add the word "Orthodox" to the "Syrian" name, there will be association with Greek Orthodox, who in the recent years, named themselves "Syrians" as coming from Syria. There is no way to change the accepted French or English use of this word. However, the present ambiguity would disappear if we add "Aramaic" to the Syriac language, and "Aramean" to the Syrian Church."

(ibid, p. 43)

On the Syriac (Aramaic) language:

"Aramaic-Syriac is one of the Semitic languages [...] Some scholars claim Aramaic-Syriac to be the oldest language in the world. And there are those who are more moderate and accept it as one of the oldest ones."

(see his "BERULE BDHIRE" [Scattered Pearls], Histoire des Sciences et de la litterature Syriaque, ND Holland 1987, p. 25) on the Syriac science:

"In the beginning the Syriac-Arameans had a refined language adorned with literature comprising both prose and poetry."

(ibid, p. 27)

on Bardaisan:

"Bardaisan, the Aramean philosopher"

(ibid, p. 177)

on Wafa:

"Wafa, the Aramean"

(ibid, p. 213)

About new born children names:

"The baptizands should be baptized in the names of the Saints and Martyrs according to the tradition of our venerably syriac-aramean orthodox church fathers."

(Patriarch Aphrem Barsaum: The Sacrament of Holy Bastism and Matrimony. According to the Ancient Rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, Losser-Holland, second edition, 1989, p. 10)

The Great Metropolitan Philoxenos Yuhanun Dolabani (1885-1969), born in Mardin [Turkey], was one of the outstanding scholars that the Church has seen in the near past. He wrote many books, in which he expressed his relationship with the Aramaeandom.

In his hymn "Love towards the Aramaeandom" he says: "Because of love towards you, O Aramaeandom, I have been deeply in love since childhood. During weakness and strength I will serve you faithfully."

(Bron: Hikmet, Vol. 8, Nr. 4/86 (Mardin, 1954), p.85)

In his book of the bee, written 1914 in the monastery of Deyrulzafaran [Turkey]:

"My dear and beloved Aramean, in many ways I am indebted to you on account of the racial love of Adam and the Semitic one of Aram (that burns in my heart)."

"I think, my dear one, . . . that you long for the Aramaic tongue, the tongue which my ancestors spoke – the lordly and ancient language. That (language) in which our Lord spoke when he was dwelling on the earth."

(preface of Mor Philoxenos Yuhanun Dolabani's book of the bee [kthobo d-deburitho], published by Verlag Bar Hebräus, Losser-Holland, 1986)

"The Aramaic language is more important to us Arameans than any other language, because it is the tongue of our race."

(ibid, p. 16)

"And as a careful examination by scholars (shows), the art of writing was a discovery of the Arameans; and among those who received it were the Greeks and the Romans, and the Saracens (i.e. Arabs), and the Persians, and the Armenians. Therefore, for the Arameans it is a blessing without equal among all mankind."

(ibid, p. 22)

"Aramean teachers give advice about this and say: do not talk too much, neither words of wisdom"
"For the fear of God and the love of mankind by the Arameans."

(ibid, p. 46)

"Be therefore similar like these Arameans: in the fear of God, and in abundance and in philanthropy toward your brethren and the members of your race, so that a good remembrance (of that) is written down for you in books and in the hearts of the Aramaeandom."

(ibid, p. 47)

"With the help of our Lord I have arrived at the end. And as a miracle provides the sweetness of the essence of the Aramaeandom, I have arranged (only) the beginnings for you (and) I ask you to be very careful with it."

(ibid, p. 58)

In Bar Hebraeus' "Book of the Dove" written by Dolabani in the monastery of Deyrulzafaran in 1916:

"To you our Aramean reader is this book dedicated, bearing (many) advantages."

(preface of "The Book of the Dove", published by Verlag Bar Hebräus, Losser-Holland 1983)

In Bar Hebraeus' book "Mush'hotho" written by Dolabani in 1929 in the monastery of St. Marc in Jerusalem:

"Bar Hebraeus has left to the Aramaeandom an incomparable preface whose propositions are excellent;"

("kthobo d-Mush'hotho" [Book of the Poems], published by Verlag Bar Hebräus, Losser-Holland 1983, C)

"I beseech the Lord to make them mighty supports for the exaltation of the Aramaeandom!"

(ibid, O)

In the book of the poems of Patriarch Yuhanon Bar Ma‘dani written in Jerusalem in 1929:

"For the benefit of those who love the Aramaeandom, we were careful to publish this book of memre and verse homilies of Mor Yuhanon Bar Ma‘dani."

(preface of "Mimre d-Bar Maadani" [Poems of Bar Maadani], ND Holland 1980)

In his poem of mourning about the death of Naum Faik († 1930):

"He was a trombone who raised his voice for our nation and because of the Aramean language of our fathers he did not stop blowing in our group."

(published in the book "Naoum Fayeq: Dhikra wa-Takhlid", by Murad Cheqqe, p. 129-130, Damascus 1936)

In the book of the letters of David Bar Faulus, which he wrote 1953 in Mardin:

"All who love the Aramaeandom are eager to familiarise themselves concerning his instruction."

(preface of "kthobo d-egrothe d-david bar faulus" [book of the letters of David Bar Faulus], published by the syriac printing of wisdom, Mardin, 1953)

"I set out to publish it, and see, with the Lord's help it is finished; I offer it to dear Aramean readers!"

(ibid, p. 1)

In the book of the poems of Patriarch Noah, written 1956 in Mardin:

"That it may it be immediate gain in the hands of those who love Aramaic learning."
"See, I offer it today as a tasteful gift to those who love Aramaic learning."

(preface of "kthobo d-mush'hotho d-fateryarkho nuh lebnonoyo" [book of the poems of Patriarch Noah from Lebanon], published by the syriac printing of wisdom, Mardin, 1956)

"As the patriarch Noah grew up, he was was educated in our orthodox faith, and loved humility. He was instructed in the sciences and learnt the Aramaeandom and the teaching of the faith."

(ibid, p. 2)

In the history book of the anonymous from Urhoy about the afflictions in Edessa, Amid and Mesopotamia, written in 1959 in Mardin:

"We loved to disseminate it in Syriac, in the language of its author, so that we might render service with good pronunciation to our own Aramaic language, and to the writers of our own regions of Mesopotamia, Nisibis, I mean, and Amid, and Urhoy and the rest."

(preface of "Makthbonuth zabne ulsone" [History of the Afflictions], published by Verlag Bar Hebräus. Losser-Holland 1984)

In the book of the wisdoms of the Aramean sage Ahiqar written in 1962 in Mardin:

"The primacy of the ancient writings in the Aramaic language is undeniable, because before all languages its culture advanced and its wisdom was disseminated."
"The story of Ahikar is said to be from the beginning of Aramean culture...and Aramean pupils should read it because of its benefits"

(preface of "Ahikar" published in Holland ,1981)

"Now already the splendours of the story I/you wished to restore are completed. I join it from its Arabic versions as a light and plan, for those who revise the book. I present it to my dear Aramaic pupils that they should be wary of the evil traps of Nadan."

(ibid, p. 4)

Aramaic Heritage of the Syriac Maronite Church

Paulus Assemani (1878-1944) was from the famous Maronite family Assemani, which produced a number of excellent scholars and played a magnificent role in introducing the Syriac heritage to the West. He wrote a Hitory of Syriac Literature in Arabic.

"The Arameans are the sons of Aram, son of Shem. They settled since old times in the large Aramean countries which were stretched from Persia in the East, and from the Mediterranean in the West and Armenia and Asia Minor in the North and Arabian Peninsula in the South. Their lands were Bayblon, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine."

(Lumaa Tarikhiya fi Fara'id al-Adab al-Suryaniya [= a short history of Syriac literature], Jerusalem 1933, p. 5)

"The Arameans were in Aram which was from Persia to the Mediterranean, and they all were called Arameans, but when the Greeks seized the area they called it Syria."

(ibid, p. 9)

Paul Al-Khoury Al-Kfarnissy (1888-1963) was professor of Syriac at the Lebanese Maronite Order. His writings include an unpublished history of Syriac literature. His Grammar of the Aramaic Syriac Language is one of the best written Syriac grammars produced in Arabic.

"The Arameans are the sons of Aram...their country is the area stretched from Persia in the east, from the Mediterranean in the west, from Armenia and Minor Asia in the north, and from Arabia in the south."

(Grammaire de la langue Araméene syriaque, second edition, Beirut 1962, introduction p. 1)

"After they became Christians the Arameans began leaving their old Aramean name to call themselves Syriacs...I wish they had never changed their old Aramean name."

(ibid, p. 2)

"Now I seek you, the children of Aram, what ever is your church denomination to remember your high origin and glorious history and to take care of your noble language..."

(ibid, p. 18)

Aramaic Heritage of the Melkite Church

Agapius of Hierapolis/Mabbug [Iraq] was a 10th century bishop. His world History features accounts of the world from its creation to the year 941/942.

"At that time [42 years after Moses was born] lived King Syrus. His rule was in Damascus. Syria was called by his name."

(Kitab al-Unwan according to the edition of Jesuit fathers, Beirut 1907, p. 26)

"Nahor begat Aram, from this name (of Aram), those settled in Harran in Mesopotamia and its neighbouring areas up to Mosul were called "Arameans". The books tell us about another Aram descending from Shem, whose land was situated in the East side of the sun [...] The borders of Aram son of Shem son of Noah are to the country of Misan; therefore the population of that city and its areas is called after Aram."

(Agapius, Kitab Al-Unvan, edited by Alexandre Vasiliev, part I, Patrologia Orientalis 5, Paris 1910, p. 666)

Aramaic Heritage of the East Syrian "Nestorian" Church

Simon Bar Sabbae († 344), was a bishop and the second catholicos of Seleucia-Ctesiphon after Papa. He was killed by King Shapur II.

In the martyrdom of Simon Bar Sabbae and his companions we read:

"And from Khuzestan [ancient Elam] he [King Shapur II] wrote an edict to the rulers of Beth Aramaye"

"These (things) were written by King Shapur [II; 309-379 AD] from Khuzestan to the rulers of Beth Aramaye."

(Syriac Manuscripts from the Vatican Library; Volume 1, VatSyr. 161, number 3. Martyrdom of St. Simeon (Symeon bar Sabba‘e), Bishop of Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and his companions. Fol. 20a)

"But that deceiver also came to [the city of] Mahuze, which belongs to Beth Aramaye, and he deceived myriads of Jews."

(ibid, Fol. 23a)

"Then, suddenly, a third edict sent by King Shapur [II; 309-379 AD] from Khuzestan came to the rulers of Beth Aramaye."

(ibid, Fol. 24a)

The supposed 6th century Chronicle of Arbela, the work of a writer named Meshihâ-zkhâ, forms a series of biographies of twenty bishops who controlled the church of Adiabene until the 6th century.

VIII. Bishop Hairan of Arbela (225-258 A.D.):

"Following after ‘Ebed Mešiha was the blessed Hairan, who was from Beth Aramaye. [...] In his time were many wars between the Romans and Parthians. And an Artabanus112, the grand king of the Parthians, pushed into the land of the Romans. And he set ablaze many cities of Beth Aramaye. [...]And in earlier times the Persians sought to pounce on the throne of the Parthians, and many times they tested their power in battle [...]
First they fell on Mesopotamia, on Beth Aramaye, on Beth Zabdai and Arzun."

(Sources Syriaques. Vol. 1. Msiha Zkha (texte et traduction). Bar-Penkaye (texte) par Mingana, Leipzig, 1907, p. 104-105)

IX. Bishop Šahlupa of Arbela (258-273 A.D.):

"Following Hairan, who is worthy of honor among the saints, was Šahlupa, zealouslycaring and hard-working in fear of God. Also this holy father was from Beth Aramaye."

(ibid, p. 109)

X. Bishop Aha d-Abuhi of Arbela (273-291 A.D.):

"And in unanimity they both choose of the entire people Papa, the Aramaean, a smart and wise man."

(ibid, p. 119)

Severus Sebokht, born c. 575 in Nisibis and passed away in 666/67, flourished in the early-mid 7th century and was bishop of the great convent of Kenneshrin (the "Eagle's nest") at which Greek was studied extensively. He was one of the foremost scientific writers of his time.
“But some of the Syriacs who had entered deeply Christianity like Bardaisan who was known as the Aramean Philosopher”

(F. Nau : Notes d’astronomie syrienne. Journal Asiatique. Série 10, 1910, p. 10)

The Khuzistan Chronicle, written by an Aramean Christian from Khuzistan [Iran] probably in 680 is described as the Syriac counterpart of the Armenian work of Sebeos.
We read about the realtionship between the bishop Isho Yahb and the persian king Khosrau II. Parvez (590-628) :
"Isho Yahb was treated respectfully throughout his life, by the king himself and his two christian wives Shirin the Aramean and Mary the Greek".

(Th. Nöldeke: Die von Guidi herausgegebene syrische Chronik, Wien 1893, p. 10)

"Gannath Bussame" (Garden of Delights) written around the 8th/9th century is a writing of the Church of the East.
"He interprets this [oracle] plentifully - i mean this multiform oracle - somewhere in Pethor of Aram-Nahrin"

(Reinink G.J.: Gannat Bussame, I. Die Adventssonntage, Louvain 1988, p. 33)

The Chronicle of Séert is an anonymously authored historiographic text written by the Nestorian Church in Persia and the Middle East, possibly as early as the 9th century AD. The text deals with ecclesiastical, social, and political issues of the Christian church giving a history of its leaders and notable members.

XV. - History of Catholicos Babai

"Having been fulfilled, all the fathers chose an inhabitant of Seleucia, relative of the astrologer Mousa, and secretary of Marzban of Beth Aramaye. He was called Babai, son of Hormizd."

(Patrologia Orientalis, Tome VII. - Fascicule 2, Histoire Nestorienne (Chronique de Séert), Seconde Partie (1), publiée et traduite par Mgr Addai Scher, Paris 1911, Published Paris : Firmin-Didot 1950, p. 129)

XVIII. - History of St. Abraham the Great

"The daughter of one of the notables of Nisibis was possessed by a demon, who tormented her much. God wanted to manifest the virtues of Mar Abraham, the demon shouted by the mouth of this girl: 'Misfortune with me! Here that this Aramean dressed in a coat and who lives in the School, drives me out and torments me.'"

(ibid, p. 134)

XXVII. - History of Mar Aba the Great

"He was scribe of Marzban of Beth Aramaye, who lived in Radan."

(ibid, p. 154)

XXXII. - History of Catholicos Joseph

"This man spend the greatest part of his life in the Greek empire, where he learned medicine. Back to Nisibis, he settled some time in a monastery and became attached to an Aramean king, who had then in this place the responsibility of Marzban."

(ibid, p. 176)

XXXII. - mortality rate at the time of Joseph

"Here is an anecdote relative to this plague. The inhabitants of Beth Armaye were all removed by the death; there remained only seven persons and a young boy."

(ibid, p. 184)

XLIX. - History of Rabban Haia

"After Mar Abraham's death, Raban Haia went to the desert of Egypt and prayed to Jerusalem. The divine grace called him then to return to Aramean ground and to build a convent in the region of Cascar."

(Patrologia Orientalis, Tome XIII - Fascicule 4 - N° 65, Histoire Nestorienne (Chronique de Séert), Deuxième Partie (II), texte arabe publié par S.G. Mgr Addai Scher avec le concours de Robert Griveau, Paris 1919, Published Brepols 1983, p. 453)

LIII. - History of Mar Yahb the hermit

"Yazdin, to whom Kosrau had entrusted the government of several provinces of Beth Armaye and the Mountain, having heard about him, came to ask himinsistently to ask God to return the life to one of his sons, who had died, and he widened him in front of the door of his cave."

(ibid, p. 458)

LVIII. - History of Khosrau Parwez, son of Hormizd

"Khosrau, by gratitude for Maurice, ordered to rebuild churches and to honor the christians. He built himself two churches for Marie and a big church and a castle in the country of Beth Laspar for his wife Shirin, the Aramean."

(ibid, p. 467)

Catholicos-Patriarch Timotheos I, born in Hazza, Arbil [Iraq], † 9.1. 823 in Baghdad, says to other East-Syriac bishops about Mor Yeshu'zkho:
"Mor Yeshu'zkho the Aramean, episcopos of (the city of) Seleucia..."

(Hanna Aydin: Die Syrisch-Orthodoxe Kirche von Antiochien, Bar Hebräus-Verlag, Glane-Losser 1990, p. 33)

About Catholicos Dodyeshu he says:

"Catholicos Dodyeshu' the Aramean…"

(ibid, p. 34)

Isho Barnun († 827), who was taught by Mar Abraham bar Dashandad in the Upper Monastery at Mossul, succeeded Timotheos I as patriarch. He produced a commentary on the whole Bible.
"Syria was thus called by the name of Syrus, who having killed his brother, reigned in Mesopotamia, and hence the whole region during his reign was called Syria. But in ancient times Syriacs were called Arameans [...] We know that the Aramean language in which Abraham spoke was the Syriac."

(Paulus Assemani: Lumaa Tarikhiya fi Fara'id al-Adab al-Suryaniya [= a short history of Syriac literature], Jerusalem 1933, p. 9)

Theodor Bar Koni, († 845 in Syria), was one of the Forty-two Martyrs of Amorion. In his book "Scholion" he says about the confusion of tongues as follows:
"It is understood that Abraham was a Syriac [...] This is the reason for the corruption of the Syriac language during the centuries. It was spoiled by accepting foreign words [...] and if you compare the Babylonian language with the real Syriac language, you will see that even one percent of it does not exist in Syriac.”

(Patriarch A. Barsaum, The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch: Its Name and History, published by the syriac organizations in Middle Europe and Sweden 1983, p. 29)

Isho'dad was a native of Merv. He bacame bishop of Haditha [Iraq] and flourished in the middle of the ninth century. He passed away in 853. In his book "Commentaries on the Old Testament" he wrote:

Genesis, XXII:

"(By) Aram (the writing) means Harran. It is called Naharin, since (Aram), Urhoy/Edessa, Nisibis and Mahouze are called Nahrin and Beth-Nahrin."

(Commentaire d'Isodad de Merv sur l'Ancien Testament/1, transl. Ceslas van den Eynde, Louvain 1955, p. 90)

Genesis, X:

"Sons of Shem: Elam: Elamites and Houzites. Assur: Assyrians and Parthians. Arphaxad: Arameans; others say Persians. Lud: Lebaneses. Aram: Harranites."

(ibid, p. 142)

Genesis, XI:

"Abraham was indeed from Kashkar in Babylonia and the Babylonians are Arameans."

(ibid, p. 147)

Genesis, XI:

"according to some authors, (the writing) means Beth Aramaye, that is to say Mahouze. "

(ibid, p. 152)

Genesis, XXII:

"The Greek translation [the Septuagint] calls allways Aram and Arameans "Syriac". Consequently, Aram becomes the father of the Syriacs. And from this name (of Aram), those living in Mesopotamia were called "Arameans". There is another Aram descending from Shem, he dwelt in the land situated in the East side of the sun."

(ibid, p. 189)

Genesis, XXVII:

"Paddan is a city in Harran. Aram is Harran, and it is called sometimes Aram and sometimes Harran."

(ibid, p. 201)

Genesis, XXXV:

"According to others: he found the men who were called 'hemaye', that is to say, the rest of the peoples, which were destroyed before by the Arameans and the sons of Esau. "

(ibid, p. 213)

Book of Judges, III:

"The Arameans are Harranites, but as a certain number (among them) had emigrated of Aram-Nahrin and had settled in Damascus, (city) neighbor of the people, for this reason this (last) place was also called Aram; and it is likely that Cousau also lived there. However, Théodule, explaining the words: Because of Aram, Ephraim and the son of Romalya agreed to harm you, says that Aram is the king of Damascus. "

( Commentaire d'Isodad de Merv sur l'Ancien Testament/3, transl. by Ceslas van den Eyndë, Louvain 1963, p. 24)

1 Samuel, XIII:

"Saqa: (the writing) calls the paw; 'elayta: The leg, that the Arameans call vps and msht."

(ibid, p. 59)

1 Samuel, XIII:

"Sekta, that is put at the plow, Abouta, with which the mason adjust the stones; the Arameans call it krm.'"

(ibid, p. 61)

1 Book of Kings, XI:

"Haddad the Edomite; it is "the Aramaean"; all "Edomiteses" mentioned in this book are "Arameans""

(ibid, p. 131)

1 Book of Kings, XV, XVI:

"The book of the Chronicles says: When Asa sent the present to Bar Haddad, the prophet Hananya came to find Asa and blamed him for having leaned on the king of Aram and not on His God. "

(ibid, p. 137)

1 Book of Kings, XX:

"The words: he made a contract (with him), that is to say: Achab made with Bar Haddad a serious agreement (of his part) as (one makes) with a friend and a familiar, while the Aramaean deceived it (while saying) that he would establish in Damascus a market with his name, same as the Jews had established one for the father (of Bar Hadad) when, one day, he had defeated Samaria."
(ibid, p. 147-148)

Isaiah, VI - VII:

"Also, he wants to say, that the capital of the Arameans is Damascus and its king Rason, and the capital of Samarie Ephraim and its king the son of Romalya, just like the capital of Juda is Jerusalem and its king Achaz."

(Commentaire d'Isodad de Merv sur l'Ancien Testament/4, transl. by Ceslas van den Eynde, Louvain 1969, p. 14)

Isaiah, IX:

"Although you gathered in great number the Arameans against us, however there was no rejoicing for you. "

Isaiah, XVI, XVII:

"And (he will be) of the rest of Ephraim as the glory (of the sons of Israel). The Greek says: the rest of the Arameans; the Hebrew: the rest of Aram; "because, (Aram), you were not better than the sons of Israel and their glory", since the Arameans, they also, in the same time as the Jews, dethroned their glory."

(ibid, p. 30)

Hosea, XII - XIII:

"And taking again the continuation (of the ideas) that he had abandoned above, he says: And Jacob fled to the land of Aram."

(ibid, p. 97)

Psalms, XLV - XLVI:

"Because of the numerous army that comes against us, it is as if the earth trembled. - The mountains shake: Pqah, son of Romalya, and Rason, king of Aram, that is to say of Damascus, who went up against Jerusalem. "

(Commentaire d'Isodad de Merv sur l'Ancien Testament/6, transl. by Ceslas van den Eynde, Louvain 1981, p. 82)

Psalms, LXXVII - LXXIX:

"And again in the time of Achaz, [all] (the men of Ephraim) got along with the Arameans, and wanted to remove the kingship from the house of David, because the soldiers had become numerous in the tribe of Ephraim. "

(ibid, p. 135)

Thomas of Marga, born early in the 9th century in the region of Salakh to the north-east of Mosul, was a monk in the monastery of Beth Abhe and later became Metropolitan of Beth Garmai. He is author of the important monastic History “The Book of Governors”.

Book II. Chapter XXII. - Of the going down of Rabban Simon to George the Catholicos

"Now when the blessed Mar George the Patriarch went up from the countries of Persia and Beth Katraye, because he had been absent there a long time, and because everything concerning him was a joy or a sorrow to this holy congregation, when all the holy Elders heard of his coming to the paternal throne of Beth Aramaye, they decided to send suitable men to meet him and to salute the father of fathers."

(E.A. Wallis Budge, The book of governors: The Historia Monastica of Thomas, Bishop of Marga, A.D. 840 Vol. II, London 1893, p. 219)

Book II. Chapter XXXII. - Of Mar Isho-zekha, the Syriac, Bishop of Salakh

"This blessed man came from the country of Beth Armaye, and according to what I have learned from the ancients, he was a monk in this holy monastery."

(ibid, p. 240)

Book VI. Chapter XV. - Of those Ascetics and holy men who were to be found in various places in the days of Rabban Gabriel

"And on the episcopal throne of Salakh there shone with apostolic light the holy Bishop Mar Isho-zekha, who came from the country of Beth Armaye;"

(ibid, p. 652)

The East-Aramean lexicographer Isho Bar Alii († 890) was a pupil of Hunayn ibn Ishaq of Hira, the famous Aramean scholar, physician and scientist.

He writes under the entry "Aram":

"Aram itself is Harran of Mesopotamia."

(R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus syriacus, Oxford 1879-1901, Volume 1, columne 388)

And he speaks of "Eastern Arameans".

(ibid)

"Syria is the country between Antiochia and Edessa and it was named Edessa after Syrus, who killed his brother and ruled over Mesopotamia."

(Bishop J.E. Manna, Chaldean-Arabic Dictionary, Babel Center Publications. Beirut 1915, p. 11-21)

Abu' l' Hassan from Baghdad, known as Bar Bahlul († 963), compiled his famous ‘Lexicon’, a small encyclopedia in which he collected, together with the lexicographical works of his predecessors, numerous notices on the natural sciences, philosophy, theology, and Biblical exegesis.
He recorded in his lexicon under the lemma ‘Syria’ that
"Syria was derived from Syrus, either during his lifetime or after his death. This Syrus had killed his brother and ruled over Mesopotamia. His whole kingdom was called Syria. The Syriacs were formerly called Arameans, but when Syrus ruled over them, from then on they were called Syriacs."

(R. Duval (ed.), Lexicon Syriacum, Paris, 1888-1901, p. 1323, 1324)

under the entry "Aram" we find the explanation:

"Aram is Harran."

(ibid, p. 295)

under the entry "Aramean apricots":

"that is to say apricots"

(ibid, p. 736)

Elias of Nisibis, born on February 11th 975 in the town of Shena, that is at the confluence of the Tigris and the Great Zab and passed away in 1049, became metropolit of Nisibis.

In his Chronography he writes:

"After his death, Heggag, Emir of Beth Aramaye gave order that there should not established any Catholic. The patriarchal throne of Seleucia remained without a chief for 20 years till Heggag died."

(Chronographie de Mar Élie Bar Šinaya, Métropolitain de Nisibe, par L.-J. Delaporte Pubblicazione: Paris : H. Champion, 1910, p. 44))

The year 664:

" In which Mu'awia established Ziad, son of 'Obeia, governor of the Beth Aramaye areas."

(ibid, p. 89)

The year 694:

"In which Hegag, son of Jusuf, was established governor of Beth Aramaye."

(ibid, p. 94)

The year 695:

"The church of Beth Aramaye remained without chief until the death of Heggag; this means for 18 years."

(ibid, p. 95)

The year 715:

"In which Jezid, son of Muhallab, was established emir of Beth Aramaye."

(ibid, p. 99)

The year 720:

"In which Omar, son of Hubeira, became emir of Beth Aramaye."

(ibid, p. 100)

The year 724:

"In which Omar, son of Hubeira, was relieved of the Beth Aramaye emirate."

(ibid, p. 101)

The year 745:

"In which he established Omar, son of Hubeira, governor of Beth Aramaye."

(ibid, p. 105)

The theory of Galileo Galilei, the astronomer, was treated by a bishop of Urhoy in the 10th century in his book called "The cause of all causes", a rich and remarkable source. In this book too, we find exactly Nietzsche's theory of the super-man.
""And the knowledge of the whole star system, discovered by the Babylonian Arameans, that is to say the Chaldeans, those who in the south-east regions are growling because of the sandy soil in all their places and the unknown paths and roads leading from place to place and from city to city."

(Das Buch von der Erkenntnis der Wahrheit, oder, Der Ursache aller Ursachen : nach den syrischen Handschriften zu Berlin, Rom, Paris und Oxford. (Leipzig : J.C. Hinrichs, 1889), p. 198)

The Metropolitan of the Nestorians Solomon of al-Basra [Iraq] writes in his book "The book of the bee" written in the year 1222:
"In the days of Reu the languages were divided into seventy and two; up to this time there was only one language, which was the parent of them all, namely, Aramean, that is Syriac."

(The Book of the Bee, edited and translated by Earnest A. Wallis Budge, M. A. [Oxford, the Clarendon Press] 1886, chapt. XXIII, p. 38)

"Touching the writing which was written in Greek, Hebrew and Latin, and set over Christ's head, there was no Aramean written upon the tablet, for the Arameans or Syriacs had no part in (the shedding of) Christ's blood, but only the Greeks and Hebrews and Romans; Herod the Greek and Caiaphas the Hebrew and Pilate the Roman. Hence when Abgar the Aramean king of Mesopotamia heard (of it), he was wroth against the Hebrews and sought to destroy them."

(ibid, p. 99)

Mar Jabalaha III, born near Beijing in 1245 and passed away in 1317, was of Uyghur descent. The syriac History of Jabalaha III and Bar Sauma takes us into the thirteenth century and records the adventures of two members of the Church from China who set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
"Though he is denounced to the Harmargerd of Beth Aramaye"

(Yabhal ah a III, Patriarch of the Nestorians, 1245-1317. Tash'ita d-mar(y) Ya(h)b'alaha w-da-tlata qatulike (') hrane wa-d-had qashisha w-da-treyn 'almaye nesrturyane Histoire de Mar-Jabalaha, de trois autres patriarches, d'un pretre et de deux laieques, Nestoriens. (Paris : O. Harrassowitz, 1895), p. 215)

Aramaic Heritage of the Chaldean Church

Touma Audo, born in Alqosh [Iraq] in 1855 and killed in the year of 1917, was the Metropolitan of Urmia [Iran] and a famous dictionary writer.

In his dictionary "Treasure of the Syriac Language" (1897) he states:

"It is well-known by scholars, that the syriac language was at that time the spoken language of the population, which lived in large numbers in the eastern areas, that is Syria, Beth Nahrin, Assyria and the land of Sinear and its environments.

All these territories were called Beth Aram by the Jews, as it is revealed in the Old Testament.

For Aram, the son of Shem, ruled over them and populated them with his offspring. For this reason, the language is not called Syriac in the Old [Testament], but ‘Aramaic’, which is its genuine and original name, as it appears to us.

For the Christian doctrine prospered first in that part of Beth Aram, which was called especially by the Greeks Syria, and primarily prospered first in Antiochia, the mother of all cities, where the disciples were called christians for the first time.

All the people from Beth Aram, who became christians, were called Syriacs.

Everyone of the children of the Aramean race, and especially the clergy, should care for, learn and sponsor the precious Aramaic language."

(Treasure of the Syriac Language by Thomas Audo Metropolitan of Urmia, Part I-II. ND Verlag Bar Hebräus, Losser-Holland 1985, preface)

under the entry "Aramean" we find the explanation:

“Arameans, that is, Syriacs. Aramaic language, [that is] syriac”

(ibid, p. 49)

Augin Manna (1867-1928), born in Bet Qopa [Iraq] was the Metropolitan of Basra [Iraq].

In 1901 he wrote in Mossul a book called "Selected pieces of aramean literature".

In his dictionary Aramaic-Arabic he writes:

"What induced us to dedicate to the mentioned topic a special chapter is to end the controversy between many Chaldeans and Syriacs. Everyone of them claims the origin for himself and to be the older one, without having a reliable evidence or a funded scientific proof. In order to clarify the actualness of this problem and avoid the controversy, we say: All tribes, which lived in ancient times in the expanded countries, which were limited in the east by Persia, in the west by the Mediterranean, in the north by Asia Minor, by the countries of the Armenians and Greeks and in the south by the Arab peninsula, were known as children of Arams or as Arameans.

The countries of Babylon and Assur were at all times, even after the Arab conquest, called Beth Aramaye, that is countries of the Arameans. It is not necessary to demonstrate the innumerable testimonies in order to prove this fact; it is a truth, which is known for everybody, who has the slightest idea of the informations about the Church of the East, because the books of our ancestors are full of them. Likewise the countries of Mesopotamia were well-known as the countries of Arams.

You will realize from the mentioned testimonies here and also from others, that the inhabitants of Edessa and Jazira all of them were Arameans by nation and language. Regarding the dwellers of Syria, it is even more evident.

You will receive testimonies of the church authors, who confirm this position. It became clear that all countries, which are known today under the designation syriac is, whether in the east or in the west, were since time immemorial known as Aramean, and this is the correct designation.

The syriac authors whether in the East or in the West, state that the term [Syriac] comes from Suros. Suros was a man of Aramean origin, who founded according to their opinion the city of Antiochia and conquered the countries of Syria and Mesopotamia. Following him these countries were called Syria and their inhabitants Syriacs, as today the inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire are called Ottomans.

The Syriacs generally, whether from the East or from the West were not called Syriacs in former times, but Arameans in dependance on their progenitor Aram, the son of Shem, the son of Noah.

The name 'Syriac' dates from a time about 400 or 500 B.C.

The term Syriac was adopted by the East-Arameans (Chaldeans and Assyrians) after Christ through the apostles, who had proselytized these countries."

(Bishop J.E. Manna, Chaldean-Arabic Dictionary, Babel Center Publications. Beirut 1915, p. 11-21)

Alphonse Mingana, the theologian, historian, orientalist, and a former priest, was born on the 23 December, probably in 1878, in the Christian village of Sharansh al-'Ulya in the district of Zakho [North Iraq] and passed away on 5 December 1937.

He wrote a book called "Key of the Aramean language or complete or practical Grammar of the two syriac dialects of the Occident and Orient" in Mosul in 1905.

He says:

"the dependence of these vowels on those of Arameans obliges us to find a centre where the culture of the Aramaic language was flourishing, and this centre is the school of Baghdâd, which was, as we have already stated, under the direction of Nestorian scholars, and where a treatise on Syriac grammar was written by the celebrated Hunain."

(Rev. A. Mingana & A. S. Lewis (eds.), Leaves From Three Ancient Qur'âns Possibly Pre-`Othmânic With A List Of Their Variants, 1914, Cambridge: At The University Press, p. xxxi.)

"In fact, no Church can claim to have studied the Scriptures more, carefully, and to have applied all the scientific resources of the early ages of Christianity to biblical criticism more steadily than the Syriac community. From the second century till the first quarter of the seventh, eight different versions of the New Testament were produced by genuine researches of the Aramaean population, spreading from the Mediterranean shores to the East of Persia, and from the massif of the Taurus to the Arabian peninsula [...] On the other hand, the writers of the Gospels, being from an Aramaic-speaking population, while writing in Greek were generally thinking in Syriac, and the Aramaic stamp |150 of their phrases is sometimes so strong that without a knowledge of this language and the reading of the versions which are written in it, the real thought of the sacred author will perhaps be misunderstood."

(A. Mingana, New documents on Philoxenus of Hierapolis and on the Philoxenian version of the bible. The Expositor, 9th series vol. 19 (1920) pp. 149-150)

in "The Early Spread of Christianity in Central Asia and the Far East":

"It is not sufficiently realized by modern scholars that the immense majority of the members of the Nestorian Church living east of the Tigris were of Persian, and not Semitic or Aramean birth and extraction".

(Asia Research Associates reprint of The John Rylands Library, vol. 9, No. 2, Part I., Foreword)

Bishop Israël Audo, born 6 Aug 1859 in Alqosh [Iraq] and passed away on 16 Feb 1941, was the brother of Touma Audo. He was appointed as bishop of Mardin in 1909.

He wrote a book about the Genocide on the Arameans called "The Book on the persecutions of the christian Armeniens and Arameans of Mardin, Diyarbakir, Séert, Djézireh-Ibn-Omar and Nsibin which took place in the year 1915".

He also wrote an exercise book in Aramaic language which was finished on March 3rd, 1952 by the monk Yonan Bar-Chabbah Margaya (of the diocese of Zakho, Iraq) and kept (preserved) to the Chaldean monastery of Bagdad.

(Jacques Rhétoré, Les Chrétiens aux bêtes Préface par J-P Péroncel-Hugoz Etude et présentation par Joseph Alichoran, Les Editions du Cerf, Paris, 2005)

We see that there is no motif for the Arameans to call the Aramaic Nation "Assyrian" or "Chaldean". The present-day Arameans will not increase the respect of other peoples towards their long and venerated History by neglecting their own name for foreign, wrong and mistaken ones!